Who will win?

Saturday, 28 May 2011

Shaka Profile

*Special thanks for iHonk for most of my sources. I'm not trying to steal any from him.*

Note: This was originally a bio written for a William Wallace vs. Shaka Zulu rematch, but I lost interest in that and decide to find a new warrior for Shaka to face.

King Shaka kaSenzangakhona of Zulu (Shaka Zulu):






Shaka was born around 1787 in KwaZulu-Natal, located in South Africa, to Zulu chief Senzangakhona and a Langei women named Nandi. Shaka was disowned early by his farther, and spend most of his childhood in his mothers village. There he trained very young to fight in a butho lempi (fighting unit), and spent some time of his teenage years fighting for the local Mthethwa tribe.
Shaka observed while serving under War Chief Dingiswayo that a tempi was little more than a political tool, used by chiefs to settle disputes and sessional raids. Shaka, according to accounts, was considered a very brave warrior while in battle, even though he did not climb to a high position quickly as most people think.
After Senzangakhona died, Shaka seceded his farther as Zulu chief in 1816. As chief, Shaka began to transform the Zulu military as well as the Zulu society. Shaka based the Zulu society around military service and military loyalty. Those who could not fight were servilely punished by Shaka himself. This attitude created a potent military machine. The Zulus under Shaka defeated many surrounding tribes with their improvements in military equipment and tactics.
Before the Shaka reform, Zulu warfare was based upon the ineffective use of assegai throwing spears and ritual combat between individual warriors. Shaka viewed these tactics as cowardly and put in place the use of fierce close range combat with little long range fighting used. Shaka also re-organized the army based on age, implicated the key of mobility, and developed many effective battlefield formations.
The Zulu empire grew to great sizes under the leadership of Shaka. Shaka was labeled by his people paramount chief, or king of kings. In 1828, Shaka was assassinated by his half-brothers in a struggle for power among the growing Zulu empire. Shaka's influence stayed with the Zulus until the fall of the Zulu empire in the late 19 century. The Zulus were able to deploy Shaka's tactics against the British army that was equipped with gunpowder weapons.
The legendary brow of Shaka Zulu carried his military and cultural image through out time and some of his influence is still felt today across Africa and the world.






                                                                        Zulu Impis


Weapons:


-Close Range: Isisila, Fighting Clubs, Ishlangu: Shaka emphasized the use of close range combat in warfare over the traditional use of missile weapons, which he viewed as cowardly. The isisila axe was one of his preferred close to medium range weapon for senior warriors and himself. The infamous sallow-tail axe head was designed just as much as a slashing and impaling weapon has it was a hacking weapon. The slim design and light weight was perfect for African warfare, where the lack of personal armour results in little use of heavier armour pricing weapons.
Shaka also oversaw the improvement of each mans martial skill individually as a warrior. He encouraged training starting at a young age, were boys would train with simple sticks to improve their fighting abilities later on. The Zulus had a variety of fighting clubs in both personal training and battlefield combat. Some were designed as solely smashing and crushing tools, while others were fashioned longer for duelling purposes.






-Medium Range: Isijula, Ishlangu: The Zulu form of medium range combat is different from other styles of it. The Zulus chose to fall back very early on their close weapons such as the Isisila or Ikwla, oppose to many other cultures that emphasized the use of long thrusting spears. Shaka felt that these type of pole-arms decreased the Impi's mobility and their use never really caught on.
The Isijula spear was used by from specialized warriors in smaller skirmishes. The spear was around 6 to 7 feet long, and could be used both two handed or one handed with the Ishlangu shield. Though less common than most Zulu weapons of the time, it offers an effective medium range use for Shaka in this battle.




-Long Range: Assegai, Knobkieerie, Ishlangu: Ranged combat was viewed as very cowardly by Shaka once he succeeded the throne. Zulu warrior was based originally on lines of men exchanging assegai throwing spears until one line ran away. Shaka limited the use of the assegai to low level warriors as a support fire to the impis. That said, the assegais were great spears, being able to be thrown at fairly long distances, but preferably used by Shaka at closer range to increase there effectiveness.
The knobieerie was slightly more commonly used by an entire impis. The short club was designed to be thrown by individual warriors at around 10 to 15 feet at blinding speed. Though easy to block with a shield, the knobkieerie wasn't design to kill, but cripple or distract an enemy to knock them off balance for a quicker close range kill. This was used more rarely then some people might think, as Shaka saw throwing away ones weapon as foolish. Still, both spear and club are very effective long range weapons against un-armoured opponents.


                                                         Typical design of a Knobieerie club.




-Specialized Weapons: Ikwla, Ishlangu: Shaka's own weapon of chose, the ikwla was possibly the most deadliest weapons the Zulus could bring. The four foot long spear with the sort handle and long, broad blade was designed specially for fierce close range combat. The Zulu would use fast underhand thrusts to an opponents lower torso, attacking weak points like the stomach and liver. The user could also use a less used slash across an opponents limbs or neck to soften him up for a killing blow.


Various sizes of Ikwlas.






































Defence: 




-Head: None: Aside from a leather headband, Zulu warriors wore little in head protection. Shaka believed that a warrior must rely on his senses more than armour in combat situations. Having complete control of ones senses allowed the Zulus to scout, travel, and communicate better. That said, a lack of formable head protection did hinder Zulus down in some cases, especially if enemy warriors were also trained in melee combat.


-Torso: None: Zulus traditionally did not wear any form of torso armour, or clothing for that matter.  The climate and terrain of Southern Africa would slow down and tire anyone wearing any heavy armour. The Zulus relied greatly on their movement to protect them in war, and any torso wear would slow them down. The only article of clothing a Zulu would wear was a small leather skirt that offered little protection what so ever.


-Limbs: None: As mentioned before, the Zulus relied much on their mobility in combat. Zulus wore little armour on their limbs, aside from some leather bands worn on the biceps and calves to protect against light slashes. One of Shaka's major reforms was the displacement of a man's sandals. He saw sandals as slowing men down the run, which he used to increase his warriors speed and stamina. The removal of the sandals allowed his men to run much more quickly, which trained their card system better. This allowed Zulus to last long in fights that regrind counties motion. 


-Blocking: Ishlangu: If there is anything iconic to Shaka Zulu, it's his large cowhide shield. The ishlangu was close to six feet tall and three feet across. The base of the shield was made from a layer of dense wood, were a handle was fixed on. Layers of cowhide were placed on, going an average of 1 to 3 inches deep. The final layer was coloured to identify a warriors rank. Shaka himself would use a nearly pure white shield, while lower rank warriors would have darker coloured shields.
The ishlangu was light enough not to render the carrier slow, but strong enough to deflect missiles and block melee attacks. A long stick, the mgobo, was erected down the middle to stabilize the shield in combat and allow the user to easily rest it when he was not moving. 


(Right): A traditional shield display with a ceremonial ikwla and knobieerie. The shield is not pure white because the lack of pure white skin on Zulu cattle. This is a type of shield Shaka would use.








Tactics:


Formations: Buffalo Horn formation: The very effective and innovative battle tactic Shaka developed and deployed was the infamous 'charging bull' formation.  An impi would first approach the opposing enemies as a whole. A main force, the 'chest', would directly charge the enemy, pinning them back. The 'horns', made up of younger, less trained warriors armed with assegai, would break off on ether sides and surround the enemy force, encircling them as the 'chest' drove forward. The last section, the 'loins', were made of veteran warriors past their prime to be in the chest. They would supply aid if the formation was in fear of breaking. The only disadvantage to this was the factor of an enemies size. A small impi could be taken very easy, but a larger one, with a higher level of training, was more difficult to combat. Regardless, the 'buffalo horn' proved itself time and time again on a variety of scales.










Motivations/Loyalty: Shaka' self-motivation was to create the most powerful kingdom in all of Africa.  He believed the Zulus were spiritually superior to all other tribes, and strafed to make his warriors feel the same way. Shaka, though very ruthless in his policies, was loved, respected, and feared by his people as a great leader and war lord. A Zulu proved his loyalty to Shaka by dieting in battle, and never retreating. Of course, like nearly all warriors who say the exact same thing, Zulus would retreat individually if a fight became to big for them.
The Zulus factored in a very brutal attitude in combat. They had a grand believe in supernatural powers surrounding them. They believed these powers would keep them safe in battle, even against gun wielding opponents. This would cause the Zulus to attack without fear, even when meeting certain doom.




Training: Shaka drilled his soldiers from a very young age to be warriors in his army. His ideal exercise for conditioning of warriors was running. He drilled his men to run barefoot on hot and rocky terrain during times of extreme heat up to 25 km a day. The well rounded card health of the Zulu allowed him to move quickly without tiring, as well as exercising the warriors entire body to increase his power in combat. The counties drilling in tough conditions made the Zulus ignore pain or weather during battle.
Zulus trained rigorusly in stick fighting to own their fighting skills. Stick fighting martial arts helped developed a Zulus club, axe, and spear fighting techniques. A warriors skill would grow over time and experience in combat.











Sunday, 8 May 2011

Croatian-Austrian Pandur vs. Russian Strelsty Warrior Profile; Strelsty

Long Range: Flintlock Musket









The gun that replaced the arquebus, the musket was one of the weapons that revolutionized Russian warfare. The combined range and power of the weapon made it a major threat on the battlefield. A Streslty would carry his musket at almost all times, as it would dignify his rank amongst peasant. What also should be pointed out is any one who owned a musket, ether military or peasant, could in fact be called a Streslty, which simply means 'shooter', as in gun shooter.

The Pre-Napoleonic Russian musket was not to different from the Ottoman Tufenk. Both had a the same type of firing system, ammunition type, and reload time. The Russian musket how ever had less design, was larger and heavier to carry, had a slightly shorter barrel (quicker reload, decreased ranged) and a larger breech, meaning more gun powder could be used, increasing the guns power

In the cold, wet lands of Russia, it was hell trying to maintain a musket and other black powder weapons. Any water or snow that got into the black powder would ruin it and stop it from igniting. This would decrease the Streslty effectiveness in the dead of winter, meaning they had to store their guns in safe, dry areas, along with using their gun powder quickly before it got old and spoil.

The Streslty had a very unique way of firing their muskets, which will be shown later. The overall quality of a Strelsty is actually very good considering their time and region. Most Russian Muskets came from Central to Western Europe, with only a handful of truly skilled armorers in Moscow being able to make war muskets. The Strelsty had a special way of shooting their muskets, which I will explain later in Special Melee.


Medium Range: Matchlock Arquebus:

The predecessor to the musket, the arquebus was the weapon of choice for the Strelsty from their formation to their disbandment. The arquebus is around one foot shorter than the musket, and of a slimmer design. The matchlock firing system required the user (or arqurebuser) to light a fuse, pull the trigger and wait until the fuse ignited the gun powder.

The Arquebus was widely open for misfires or mechanic breakdowns. Though it was smaller then the musket, it took sometimes even longer to reload it and prepare the firing system.
Strelstys used the arquebus as more of intimidation weapon, as a single shot from even a small arquebus would make a great amount of noise and so much smoke that the shooter would be siting in a cloud so thick that he could barely see. The arquebus was fairly light and could be carried on a long march for a great deal of time. The Arquebus was also cheap to produce and supply to even untrained soilders.

The Strestlys used some of the guns disadvantage to their advantage. Oppose to using the arquebus to sharp shoot like a musket, they would fired their guns in formation at a large host of enemies at a close range. The volley of flying lead would hit enemies at full force, the the loud bangs and bright flashes of the guns being more than to break their will to push forward.


Specialized Melee: Bardiche:

Two the left are two Russian medieval bradiche axes, with a small flail in between. The Bardhice was developed from the Scandinavian Dane axe and became very popular in eastern Europe.  Thought the axe has various designs it had always retained its basic shape of a crescent axe head that stretches from the middle to beyond the top of the poles end.

Rarely longer than five feet, the axe was very effective at hacking, along with thrusting using its specialized head. If a Stresly had to abounded their guns, they rarely ever left ed behind their bardhice, which could be very effective in close range combat. Even against armoured infantry and calvary, the bardiche was very useful in melee combat, along with the fact it could be easily used and made.

Longer Bardiches would weight around 10 to 15 pounds, but could still be carried for long distances, normally rested against the shoulder. The Strestlys also found a handy way to use their axes in combat; placing the axe right side up on the ground, the Strestly would hold the axe in place with one hands, while placing his musket or arquebus on the top of the axe and firing with the other hand.

The Streslty third from the left demonstrates this technique. Using the axe as a rest increased it's accurately and allow the user to shoot at a greater range. The bardhice also meant the Srestly didn't have to carry a support for nether their musket or aqreubues, decreasing the weight of their equipment.










                                                         Some Sabre vs. Bardhice fighting.


Close Range: Shashka:

The Shashka was developed by the Cossacks as a cross between a European longsword and an Middle Eastern sabre. The sword was very effective at slashing, stabbing, thrusting, and hacking. One of it's special features is its lack of a guard and a curved pommel.

The Strelsty used them (or a type of sabre like them) as their primary side arm. The sword, along with the baridhice, was a simple for the sternly, displaying their higher power and class.






Extreme Close Range: Kindijal Dagger:


The Kindijal was a weapon common through out Eastern Europe. Oringanally from Georgia and the Ukraine, the dagger and many variations of it spread across Russia, where they found their way into the hands of the Strestly. It should be noted that the Strestlys used a varied of knifes and daggers, with no official knife for them.

The kindijal



Armour:

Head, Neck:  Schlem-shishak (Rare)

The Schlem-shishak (normally called just 'shishak') was a helmet found in Russia from the 15 th to 17 th century. Though normally accompanied by a veil of chain mail, by the time of the Strelsty, the helmet was simplified for the purpose of shooting.

The helmet was very rare through out the Strestly, where the only ones using it having had it pass down to them in their families. Most Strestly wore simple hats and caps to keep their heads worm.






Torso, Arms, Legs (scored individually, but added together): Caftan, Boots, Leather Strap:

The long Caftan was design to defend against snow and cold weather, being made of thick materials. The heavy fabric and design offered decent protection while not hindering the Stresltys movement to much. The coat goes all the way from the chest, to the arms and over covering the legs.

A leather strap for holding ammunition was worn arose the chest.

The Strestlys wore thick leather boots that went up to the back of the knees. The boots could defend against low slashes and hacks.







Blocking: Bardhicie:

The sear length and power of the bardhice could block and deflect any enemies close range melee weapons. Many historical records talk about how the Bardhice could hack away swords, pole arms, and even the heads off of pikes. This axe will help to increase the Strestly game at close range.




Specialized Formations: "Gulyay-Gorod" (Walking Fort):

The Gulyay-Gorod Formation was used by various branches of the Russian Army from the 15 to 17 century. The formation made up of large wall sized wooden shields placed on wheels, making a mobile fort quite literally. This made them much cheaper to make and use then war wagons, but offered the same amount of protection and mobility. The Strestly made small hole and slots where they fire from without being in risk of being shot.

This formation, like the Pandur's, will only help the Russian's at close to medium range, as it is easy to break the formation at close range to engage in melee combat.








Tactics:


Training: Good Training From A Family, Bad Training If Recruitment:

The quality of training depended on the status of the solider. If he was in a family of wealthy Strestly, he would have advance fencing and marksmen training along with military strategy and basic hand to hand combat. A recruit of a poorer back ground would only be given basic instructions and training, with very little discipline involved. The average Strestly of middle class background (family or recruit) would learn how to fight with sword, bardhicie, musket, and hand to hand. This training gave them a decent amount of martial skill while fighting one on one or in a group.


Motivation/ Loyalty: Poor Pay, Bad Tsar:

The Strestly were gravely mistreated during their times of service. While those who had connections close in Moscow lived at a high social level, those spread out across the country, mostly in Serbia, lived in very poor conditions and were given very little pay. many Strestlys grew hateful of the Tsar government, which soon led to the Strestly Uprising. Most Strestly had very little loyalty their the Tsar or even some of their commanders. To be a Strestly sometimes was like being a slave to the government, meaning the Strestly lacked mossy motivation in combat.








Rules of Combat : Fight As One, Massacre The Enemy:

The Strestlys had a very simple strategy going into combat: destroy the enemy. The Russians would always drive forward, frequently driving their enemies back using brute force and their eagerness to fight. While this may sound like a very dumb strategy, the attitude and ideals behind this would gave the Strestlys all the hope they needed to fight. Combat was like a game to them sometimes, as they would jest and jeer at their enemies, making them look like mad men in the eyes of their enemy.
How this will do against the Pandurs, I don't know.


Overall / Primary Strategy: Shoot From Mobile Fortress, Move In, Break Away And Shoot Small Arms, Charge In and Use Melee:

The title is pretty explanatory. The Russians approach (or are approached by) an enemy in their walking fort formation. The walls would defend them from all side from enemy fire, and they would then return fire. The fortress would slowly move forward, waiting until the right time to break formation and fire with their medium range weapons. This would break down the enemies flanks so the majority of the Strestlys could engage in melee combat. By this time, the enemy would ether retreat, or face a bunch of wild axe men dead on.
This wasn't always the way Strestly would approach combat. They had different formations going up against skirmishers, pike men, cavalry, etc.

Tuesday, 3 May 2011

Croatian-Austrian Pandur vs. Russian Strelsty Warrior Profile; Pandur



Weapons:






Long Range: Snaphaunce Tufenk Musket






By the 18 th century, firearms dominated the Austrian battlefield. Every infantry man was supplied a musket, from the lowest to highest ranks. The Pandurs used many different types of muskets, depending on their region. The Panders in my match up will have the Ottoman Turk style musket, the Tufenk.
The musket replaced the less accurate arqebues as the main firearm on the battlefield. It's longer range, accurately and power was desirable for both formation infantry and single irregular snipers.

The snapaunce musket was operated much like any other type of musket.  A bullet wrapped in cartridge paper was removed and tore open, an amount of gunpowder would be poured into the priming pan,  the musket ball would be rammed down the barrel of the gun by a ramrod, the musket was shouldered, aimed, cocked, and then fired. The flintlock had a small amour of flint in its firing hammer, which when the gun was fired would scraped against a piece of metal, creating sparks and lightning the powder. The cheap but re labile system was favourited all over Europe.

The tufenk was not to different from other European muskets, with only an Indian styled stock and much more design and decoration. The smooth bore of the musket (meaning the inside of the barrel was smooth unlike today's rifled guns) meant the musket could only fire accurately from 46 m to 64 m. The lack of range is why the musket was mainly used in large formations. The Pandurs used the musket as more individual weapons, using them to sharp shoot enemies at fairly far distances. The muskets fire could be used as a psychologically weapon, with the sound and flash distorting unsuspecting soldiers so very well, but could also give away the users location very easy. Reloading was also a trouble, taking up time and opening the shooter to attacks.

While the musket was almost always equipped with a bayonet, a long knife or spike at the end of the gun used for close range attacks, this match with not fetter them on ether side.



Musket ammunition consisted of smooth lead balls which was made by the muskets user himself. The size various from around 13mm to 20mm.


Medium Range: Twin Flintlock Pistols

Aside from their musket, Pandurs only carried one other type of gunpowder weapon, the flintlock pistols. Flintlock pistols were very cheap to make and distribute for a large army. Each pander was too have two pistols on him at all times. The reloading time on each pistol meant its user could only fire one shot from it per skirmish. by having two, the Pandur could not be handicapped in the middle of battle. Still, having only two shots still limited the effectiveness of it's user against a large host of foes.

The firing system is sailor to that of the musket, only the pistol would take less movement and energy to reload. While the pistol was cheap and very reliable compared to other misfiring prone guns of the time, its size and lack of rifling decreased both its accuracy and range. The average pistol could fire up to 10-20 feet, but could rarely hit a target accurately for a kill shot beyond 15 feet. The decreased power also meant an enemy at a fair range could survey a shot, even with just minimal armour.

The pistols, though limited in their capabilities, offer the ability to have two shots compared to one. When the pistols were fired, they could also be used as makeshift clubs in close range (which could happen very quickly in the single shot era), as well of being 'shock' weapons, with again the bright spark, thick smoke, and loud bang could scare the fight out of an enemy before they could even fire.

Pandurs would keep their pistols in makeshift belts of cloth around their waists. The pistol was used in many aspects of a battle, primarily if the Pandurs had to leave their defensive positions (all talk about that later). The pistol may proof to be a very lethal weapons against the Strelsty, but that has yet to be decided.

Specialized Melee: Yatagan

The yatagan has Turkish origins and became very popular in Europe from the 16 th to 19 th centuries. The light and short blade was made to be easily carried by light infantry men on the March, much like the Pandurs. The Pandurs would have gotten most of these type swords from Ottoman controlled lands where they had fought in.

The straight blade was curved forward half way through to increase the swords slashing and hacking power. the narrow tip made it very easy to puncture chain mail with. the lack of guards allowed it's user to use the sword both in one hand or in two hands. A simple amount of training was needed for this exotic blade, which could be used quicker and more lethally than many European swords of the time.

The yatagan was very common for the Pandurs, but not every Pandur would be able have one. As the sword is Turkish, the only way for most men to posses such sword was to take from the battle field of a slain Turkish army. Though Pandurs would commonly find this an easy task, younger men or those without experience in the Ottoman empire could rarely grab on to these swords easily.


shasmir, while others carried more of a European style.

The sabre was used primarily for slashing, with the design of a single edge curved blade to cut more quickly and cleanly through flesh. This was very important when the sword was used on horseback. The sword cold also stab and thrust vary quickly. The sabre did not require that much of training to use, which made it very easy for Pandurs to use. The sword was widely available for most any solider, who could use it for whatever purpose they would need.


Extreme Close Range: Hunting Knife

the Hunting Knife was the primary tool of most Austrian solider. The short blade could slice off animal flesh, cut cloth for bandage, cut through ground as an entrenching tool, and just about any type of other function a pander may need to have. a Pandur would carry up to around three knifes for various uses, including in combat. the knife could be used as a weapon of last resort, as well as an ambush weapon for sneak attacks (more about those later).

The knife will not be an overly effective weapon this fight, but could even the odds later on.


Armour:

Head: Shako

The shako was a European based military cap, unique by its tall, round top and its short visor at the front.  The Pandur shako had heavy Turkish influence and design, sometimes being mistaken for other Ottoman war caps. The shako was just plainly a regular military cap, use to shade away light and heat while on the march, as well as keeping the soldiers head dry in rain or snow.

The shako was also a very versatile tool in times of need. The long, deep volume of the hat could be used to carry water or other supplies. The hat could also be placed on the ground and used as a gun rest for a musket. The shako was made of hard leather, Which would stop damage from certain explosions or blows, but the cap had very minimal protection around the face and neck area. Most Pandurs wore their caps very loosely, keeping them venerable to face shots or slashes to the neck.




A simple shako cap. The panders had a verity of colours, sizes, and designs. Pandurs also wore various types of caps and light hats in a casual manner.











Neck: See Dolman


Torso / Arms: Dolman / Pelisse:

The dolman was a simple battledress through out Europe, based on Turkish designs. The front was bound together with many layers of elaborate braids, which could stop a swords slash at a fair distance. The dolman covered both the torso and arms. The pelisse was a simple fur lined coat worn over the left arm to protect against slashes and hacks. Both of these articles lack lots of protection needed for effective defines, but still have a chance in this fight.




A simple dolman. Note the metal buttons and high collar covering the neck.












Pelisse can be seen on the left shoulder.













Legs: Pants, Boots:

Very basic clothing choices,  made of heavy materials, but both will not be very effective in this fight


Blocking: Sabre, Yatagan:

With the wide disappearance of armour and shields from the battlefield, Pandurs relied on basic blocking techniques from their two swords to keep an enemies melee attacks at bay. Still checking my sources, but the Pandurs may have been able to wield both their sabre and one of their side arms at the same time, using the longer sword to deflect and trap an opponent while keeping a fair distance away and then countering with a quick attack with the smaller, quicker blades. Either way, this section will only help the two warriors in a very close range, as nether have mobile arms that will be able to stop each others fire arms (just wait until the Strelsty, you'll see).

Formations: Defence positions





In all the past defence sections, the Panders have lack any form of protection from nearly all enemies attacks. This is because the Pandurs choose to relie on their tactics rather than bulky armour which would slow them down. Pandurs, unlike most other soldiers of the time, fight in small bands around certain, concealed areas. This allows them to use their surroundings, such as trees, bushes, hills, rivers, lakes, mountions, rocks, buildings, fences, and even animal herds as defence positions.

As the picture above illustrates,  a Pandur would use their surrounding to hide behind and protect them from enemy fire, while at the same time using it to improve their aim by propping their muskets on rocks, branches, or their hats. The use of distance is what also made this tactic deadly, as one Pandur, who could camp in the same area day in, could fire from a semi conceal location on a large group of unexacting enemy soldiers, reload, and continue firing on without the threat of return fire. Once an enemy charged to fight in melee combat, the position could be easily lefted behind as the solider could retreat to yet another position.

The only real weaknesses of the formations were the lack of protection in close range combat and the muskets smoke, noise, and flash possibly giving away the Pandurs location. Even with this, a fair amount of Pandurs in various locations around an enemy could do considerable amount of damage while at the same time defending themselves from return fire.


Tactics:

Training: Basic Drills, Gain of Experience, Life learned skills:

The Pandurs worked in some of the dangerous lands of their time. A Pandur would gain their fighting skill from experience on the battlefield.  A regular Pandur was only given a basic form of training before being deployed. Learning how to shoot muskets and pistols could be learned from a young age, along with basic survival skills. Pandurs were nether rich or stupid, and could care for themselves if an army or unit fell down.

Training with swords took place in camps, were it would be more of a hobby then serious training. Young Pandurs were taught on the spot how to hide, run, and conceal from enemies, and which tactics could be used in certain situations. Over time the Pandurs gain very basic skills and were able to use them very wisely. This lack of advance training done through out other armies of the time never effective the Pandurs.
                                                       Basic Pandur Style Sword Fighting


Motivation / Loyalty: Plundering, Good Employers:


Pandurs spend most of their "spare time" plundering surrounding towns and villages in the areas they were deployed in. If it was for food, equipment, or just riches, the Pandurs wanted it. These raids caused senior Pandur officers much grief, as nearly half a formation could be missing for a battle because they were plundering.


Pandurs had no true loyalty to the throne, but mostly relied on each other. Most soldiers would stay as long as they were paid. This would result in much friction between soldiers, officers, and the monarchs.






Overall Strategy: Irregular Warfare, Attack Supple Lines, Weaken Enemy for Main Army:


Pandurs were rarely deployed in wide spread battles. Instead, they were ordered to go behind enemy lines and disturb enemy supple carts and soldiers on the march. This allowed the soldiers to weaken the enemy before they even got onto the battlefield.


Lack of organization didn't bother the Pandurs one bit. Pandurs would view their job sometimes as game hunting, normally joking around fires at night in small bands. Irregular warfare was very effective against almost as enemies at the time. With elements of guerrilla warfare, the Pandur style was very deadly and ruthless.




Primary Strategy: Attack Un-Expecting Enemy, Shoot from defence positions, Close in with Pistols, Melee the Rest:


A typical Pandur attack went like this: A band of Pandurs would camp near the sides of an enemy supple route, take positions behind trees or fences, then wait. Once a risible size of enemies came by (small enough for a fight, but big enough to inflict damage on the main army) the panders would shoot with their muskets at their foes. This would cause confusion and fear that would break down their enemy. Once the enemy started to spread out, the Pandurs would move in with ether muskets or their pistols, and then finish them off with their swords.


this tactic is very effective, but could be broken if the Russian's can pull something out their sleeves. The Pandurs used this tactic as a template for many other types of conflicts. If it was small scale battle or taking a castle, the use of defensive areas with musket fire, moving in with pistols, and then finishing with swords proved to be fatal to even the most elite of enemy.




Rules of Combat: Ruthlessness, Ferocity, Never Be Afraid to Retreat, Fire Muskets Together, Move in Together, Close Range Fight Individually:


Pandurs were very ruthless, tearing apart nearly everyone who came in their way. They had no mercy and would use any cheap trick they could find. If a Pandur found a threat to big, he would call in a retreat. If his enemy started to pursue him, he would trap him and finish him off.


When it came to group combat, each man would fire their muskets at the same time, wait until they could all move in, and then fight hand to hand individually. Their ferocity was legendary in combat. The absolute killing instate of the Pandur makes up to a lot of their tactics.